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Summaries world About Book: Is the world getting worse every day? Are most people struggling with poverty? Will the population rate always k...

Factfulness - Book Summary - Hans Rosling

Summaries world

About Book:

Is the world getting worse every day? Are most people struggling with poverty? Will the population rate always keep increasing? In this book, you will know the answers to all these questions and more. Our vision of seeing the world is already old. Hans Rossling proved that the world is now becoming a safer and better place. This book will surprise you with accurate figures and fun data.

Who should read this summary?

• Young Engineers and Architects
• Those who want to become doctors
• Those who want to be teachers
• Those who want to become leaders later
• College Student
•    Nurse
• to mother

About author:

Hans Rossling is a professor and medical doctor. He along with his son and daughter-in-law founded the Gapminder Foundation. Hans has also been an Adviser to the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF. His TED Talk video has been viewed 35 million times. Hans Rossling died in 2017, but his great ideas have been educating people all over the world even today.

Factfulness - Book Summary - Hans Rosling

Let's We Start Summaries:


Before proceeding, let's take a test quickly. Answer these three questions in your mind and remember your answers.

first question. In the last two decades, the number of people living in extreme poverty has ……
A. almost doubled
B. more or less than before or
C. Half?

Second question, how many children of the world, who are younger than one year, have already been vaccinated for one particular disease?
A. 20%
B. 50% or
C. 80%

Third question, how many people have electricity facility in the world today?
A. 20%
B. 50% or
C. 80%

Do you remember your answers? Do you have any other answer coming in your mind? Let us know what are the correct answers according to United Nations Statistics,

The answer to the first question is Option C. In the last two decades, the number of people living in extreme poverty has decreased by almost half.

The answer to the second question is, Option C. 80% of children under one year of age have already been vaccinated.

The answer to the third question is option C. Today 80% of the people in the world can use electricity.

How many of your answers turned out to be correct? Are all your answers wrong? Hans Rossling often starts his lectures with a similar test.

At the beginning of his career, Hans used to get very frustrated about how wrong the attitude of people looking at the world is. He was angry and angry that how the media shows poverty and violence by making it worse.

That is why Hans Rossling made it his life's mission to change and update the way people see the world. He founded Gapminder with the help of his children, Ola and Ana. This is an organization that shows data in our lives. Gapminder makes graph and analysis even more fun and effective.

In this book, you will know the three instincts that we humans have. Which are - Gap Instinct, Negativity Instinct, and Straight Line Instinct (Gap Instinct, Negativity Instinct and Straight-Line Instinct) These three instincts blur our worldview.
Let's discuss them one by one.

Gap instinct:

What does Gap Instinct mean? It is our great misconception that the world is divided into two parts - "developing and developed countries", "Western or West countries and the rest of the countries", rich countries and poor countries ". Nothing like that. There is no difference or difference. The world has changed in the last few decades and we should also update the way we think about our world.

Let's take a look at developing and developed countries. Imagine a graph in which many circles are made. Each circle represents a country. The size of the circle shows the population of the country. On the left side of the graph, you can see two big circles which are India and China.

On the y-axis, it shows the percentage of children who remain alive from 0 to 5 years of age, and on the x-axis, it shows the average number of children how many children are there from a woman. As you can see the mark on the y-axis is written with 50% at the bottom and 100% at the top. And on the x-axis, you can see marks made from 8 children to 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1.

Now, imagine that you can clearly see two parts. Suppose a part on the left side of the graph in which these developing countries, India and China are there. It shows that only 70% to 80% of children up to the age of 5 years are able to survive and it also shows that a woman has an average of 5 to 7 children.

Whereas, developed countries like America and Europe are shown on the right side of the graph. Here 90% to 100% of children up to 5 years of age live. And here a woman has only 2 to 3 children against her average.

what does this mean? This graph shows that there is clearly a gap between developing and developed countries.

The data shown in this graph is data taken from the time of 1965. It shows what the world was like in 1965, which was 5 decades ago.

Why did Hans Rossling choose the subject of child survival only to study our thinking about the world? This is because society contributes to raising and raising a child. If all the children above the age of 5 years are alive in a community, it means that there is clear water and there is plenty of food and medicines available easily. There are educated and there are medicines to prevent pregnancy.

Come, let's look at the updated graph. The graph shows the state of the world in 2017 when Hans Rossling wrote this book. Again, listen carefully.

In 2017, almost most countries have come to the right side of the graph. Suppose they have gone to the top corner on the right side of the graph. On the left side, in which we had kept developing countries, now only a few countries are left there. Most countries are now being counted among developed countries.

This simply means that that data is now outdated. They are already wrong. We should not use them now. For example, in India, 95% of children up to the age of 5 remain alive. And a woman has an average of 2 to 3 children. This is the data of 2017 and now India is already well included in the list of developed countries. It is at the top right corner of the graph.

So, if these "rich and poor", West's country and the rest of the country labels are already wrong, should we use them now? What should we use to study it properly? What should we use to help more people and provide them with adequate food, clean water, education and health care?

Hans has suggested this: The Four Income Levels

The world population is currently 7.6 billion. So, imagine a picture of a figure like 7 humans and they look like pieces of chess. Each figure shows 1 billion people.
The concept of four levels starts from here.

There are one billion people in Level-1 income. Here only one piece of chess. The daily budget of the families in Level-1 is one dollar per day. There are a total of five children in the family. The father is a farmer and the mother is a housewife. There is no facility for tap water here.

Children have to walk barefoot and fetch water from a well far away. They also collect wood and collect food so that they can be burnt and cooked. Mother cooks porridge for the whole family. They eat just this porridge every day at all times.
Whenever a storm comes, all the crops will be destroyed and the family will have no income. That 6-year-old little girl will die because there is no medicine for her cough and phlegm. All the children are malnourished, they are not getting enough and good food. Their lungs have become weak due to cooking in the fire inside the house.

This is a condition of extreme poverty. This is level-1. Statistics data shows that around 1 billion people in the world are living in this way.

There are about 3 billion people with level 2 income. Their daily budget is 4 dollars. These people can buy eggs and rice. Such families do not have to grow crops to eat. The father can have a bike motorcycle which he uses to go to his work.
But still, they do not have any facility for tap water. Yes, but there is definitely a well within a short distance. Children have slippers to wear on their feet. The mother uses a gas stove to cook. There is also a light bulb inside the house so that children can do their homework.

The father saves money so that he can buy a mat, carriage or mattress for his entire family to sleep. Life is better But when one of the children becomes ill, the mother has to borrow money or the father has to sell his motorcycle.

There are about 2 billion people with level 3 income. Today, 2 billion people around the world are living their lives on a daily budget of $ 16. Wow, that's a great improvement. After all, there is tap water and reliable electricity. Such families have a fridge in which they can keep their food and can also eat different dishes.

He also has a motorcycle which his mother uses to take two children to school. Both the parents have good salary jobs and they save their children for college studies. If someone falls ill in the family, they can use their savings to pay medical bills. Or if it does not, then the whole family can go for a walk on the beach or somewhere on the last holiday of the week.

At Level-4, there are 1 billion people. These people live on a daily budget of $ 64. The living of these families is very good. They have a car. There are many types of appliances and accessories in their home. Parents have very high salary jobs and children go to private schools. These people cannot even think of living on a budget of 1 dollar a day.

What level does your family come from? Is this level 1, 2, 3, or 4? Again, remember that there is no . You have to change your gap instinct. Today, most of the world's population lives in level-2 and level-3 income. Only 1 billion people live in a state of extreme poverty. And only 1 billion people are very rich too. Most of us are in the middle.

Even within a country or a state, there are families with Level 1, 2, 3, or 4, income. Therefore, there is no such thing as "he" and "we". Most people can now afford full food, health care and education. Now, most of the population has access to electricity and clean water. Don't you think the world is becoming a safer and better place?

negativity instinct:

If these statics do not convince you, then here are some more good information. Let us move on to the next Instinct of our list - The negativity Instinct.

This directly means that people notice more negative things than positive ones. We always feel that the world is getting worse. We like to see bad more than good. It is more fun for us to talk about negative things than positive things. That is why all the evening news is about crimes and any crisis or deficiency.

Okay. Let's talk honestly. Animals are in greater danger. The snow is melting Our seas will rise about three feet and up by the next evening. Overfishing and pollution are spoiling our seas.

The decline of the US stock market in 2007 was shocking. Many people had to lose their jobs, their money, their homes. But the system did not change and the same problem can happen again.

We should not forget terrorism and border or border or border tension.
Take a deep breath. Breathe in and release out. Hans says that if we do something right now, if we use the right and accurate data, and if different countries work together, then we get peace, prosperity, and a clean environment in our time.

Imagine a world where no child dies of malaria, where there are no suicide bombers, where no safe place is made for wild animals. Isn't that what we all want?
Let's look at our statics. People from 30 countries are asked the question "What do you think the world is getting worse, getting better, or just like that?"
More than 50% of the people responded that the world is getting worse.

55% of Japanese say that the world is getting worse. 60% of British also say the same, while 90% of the people of Turkey believe that the world has never been worse than this before.

Well, our job here is to think about positive things. So, then let's use statics to clear the misconception that the world is getting worse day by day. Let's talk about poverty again.

Keep in mind that all the graphs that Hans has shown are on the basis of United Nations data and you can see them for free by visiting the official website of the United Nations.

We have already said that the number of people living in poverty is almost half in the world today.

What evidence do we have of this? In the year 1800, 85% of the world's population had an income level-1. Most of the people were hungry. There was not enough food to eat. In the United Kingdom, children had to work so that they could get money to eat. British children start working at the age of 10 on average.

And yes, in 1800, 20% of the Swedish population, including Hans's relatives, moved to the United States in the hope of a better life. Most of them never returned to Sweden again.

Imagine a graph again. There is a percentage of people living in extreme poverty on the y-axis. So, you will see that there are marks from 0% to 50%, to 100%. And on the x-axis, you will see the year. Years on the x-axis begin at 1800, and then 1850, then 1900, and 2000.

You will see on the graph, that from 1800 to 1966, the number of people living in extreme poverty is gradually decreasing. Let's repeat it again. In the year 1800, the number of people living in very poverty has come down from 85% to only 50% by the year 1966.

Now, in 1966, a huge change took place. The world war is over. It is a time or period of a long piece. Now listen to it carefully, since 1966, the rate of very poor poverty has come down to only 9% in 2017.

This means that as of 2017, only 9% of the world's population is living on a $ 1 budget every day. The best thing is that poverty has come down very fast in the last 20 years. It has decreased faster than any time in history.

Let us look at it carefully. In 1997, in both India and China, 42% of the population there was in very poverty. But as of 2017, only 12% of Indians are very poor. This means that from 1997 to 2017, 270 million people have reached Level-2 or Level-3.
And in China, a lot of poverty has come down to 0.7% in 2017. This means that one billion Chinese people have come out of the conditions of extreme poverty.

How old were you in 1997? Have you noticed the change in the lifestyle of your family? Hans says we should celebrate. We should be happy because in just two decades 29% of the world's population has got rid of too much poverty.

Today is a good chance for you to smile and stay positive.

Straight-line instinct:

Now, let's move on to the last biggest misconception or misconception on our list - The Straight-Line Instinct. It is believed that the world's population will always just grow. With the passage of time more children will be born and after all this earth will not be able to meet our needs.

Do you remember the story of Lord Krishna? The same story in which they ask for twice as much rice as they cross every square in the chessboard? On the first square, he asked for a grain of rice. On the other, Lord Krishna already had two grains. On the third one, he already had three grains.

With each crossing square, the number of grains of rice doubles. So, similarly, they have 8, then 16, then 32, then 64 grains. On the last square of the chessboard, Lord Krishna found 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 grains of rice.

This is what the straight-line instinct means. We think that the number on the graph will also increase in a similar way.

Okay, let's test your knowledge once again. Answer this question. According to the statistics of the United Nations, there are 2 billion children living in the world today. Their age is between 0 and 15.

How many children will be here by the year 2100?
Is it A. 4 billion? B. 3 billion? Or C. 2 billion?
If we draw it on a graph, Option A. 4 billion is a straight line going up. Whereas in the meantime, for option C. 2 billion, the line is going up and then going to a point, a flat line is being formed.

What is your answer?
Perhaps you would have given your answer to option A. 4 billion, just like the social science teachers who ask at Hans conference. Meanwhile, 26% of World Economic Forum experts gave their answer as option C. 2 million.

Let us once again look at the graph of the United Nations to reveal the correct answer. It shows the population of children between 0 and 14 years of age in the world. It also shows the estimate for the future of the UN.

On the y-axis in the graph, you can see that 0 to 1 billion, 2 billion, 3 billion, 4 billion. And on the x-axis, you can see years from 1950, 2000, 2050, and then 2100.
The correct answer is Option C. By the year 2100, there will be 2 billion children between the ages of 0 to 14 years in the world. Just as many as today. The correct graph is not a straight line.

Between 2000 and 2010, the rate of increase stopped. As we were saying this is already happening. The world's population will not continue to grow forever. With the passage of years, the number of children born will not double.

The United Nations has stated its estimate that by the year 2100, the world population will remain 10 billion to 12 billion and will remain the same in the future. Experts call this trend "flattening of the curve".

Why is this happening? This is happening because, today, people are more educated. We have gone from farming to the digital age, so families no longer need many children to help in farming. There are better health care facilities so the death rate of children is low. Parents do not need more children.

Today, we have more access to ways to stop sex education and pregnancy. Parents want fewer children so that they can provide better education and good care to the children. Family planning is done to ensure that the children are healthy and well educated.

In this way, the straight-line instinct is incorrect:
In 1965, a woman averaged 5 children. But in 2017, this rate came down to one child only. The UN has speculated that till the year 2100 and after that, it will remain the same.

If we continue to educate our children, if we improve health care and family planning, then the UN's estimate will be correct. Every parent wants to give their children a better happy life, right?

In this way, we can maintain our civilization on this planet. We will not have to run to Mars-like science fiction films.


In this book, you learned about three major misconceptions or misconceptions. These are called gap instinct, negativity instinct, and straight-line instinct.
You know that the world is not divided into two parts. There are no rich and poor countries here. Labels with a developing and developed world are outdated. You also have to change your perspective to see and understand the world.
If you have a passion and positive attitude, you can take your family from level-1 income to level-2, level-3, and even level-4.
You also learned that you should not be negative. The headlines that you see in the news are shown to be very exaggerated. Poverty in the world is less and crime is also less.
As a new generation, we have the power to make the world a safer and better place.
If we are more understanding about the beliefs of all the people i.e. the bailiff system, if we choose to be more compassionate with each other, if we choose to take more care of our environment, then only our children will be in peace and a good environment Will be able to enjoy
In this book, you also learned about straight-line instincts. The population of the world will not always increase. We have reached the flatline where the number of children born remains the same every year. By the year 2075, there will be 11 billion people and if we choose the right decision then this number will stop there.
Now that you have all this information, what will you do with it? Whatever career you are making now, you can contribute to the change that we want to see happening in the world. Whether you are a teacher, doctor, engineer, programmer, carpenter or whatever work you do, you can do anything.
Over time you too will become a parent. You can create the future you want for your children. Think about it
You can also watch Hans' TED talk video on YouTube. He is a very funny and good teacher. Like his organization gapminder, Hans makes the information more exciting and interesting.
Hans died in 2017 due to ill health. But he is changing the world with this small effort and you can do the same.

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