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summaries World About Book:  Leonardo da Vinci has been the most famous and controversial artist and thinker of history. In this book, you w...

summaries World

About Book: 

Leonardo da Vinci has been the most famous and controversial artist and thinker of history. In this book, you will get a chance to look into his mind. Which principles did he adopt in his life? What did he really believe? This book will teach you how you can become an Extraordinary Genius like him.

Who should read this summary?
• People who aspire to become Artists and Scientists
• Young adults

About author:

Michael Gelb is an executive coach and management consultant. He teaches organization and people about creativity, leadership and innovation. Michael has also written 17 non-fiction books. They also motive people through their keynote speech and seminar.

How to Think like Leonardo Da Vinci - Book Summary - Michael Gelb

Now we Start Summary:


Have you heard the name of Leonardo da Vinci? Who was he? He was a genius and a great artist. He had created many fine paintings, out of which Mona Lisa and The Last Supper came to be called Masterpieces. He was a great artist, besides, he had a lot of knowledge about many different fields like Botany, Anatomy, Military Engineering, etc. For his deep knowledge, he is called a renaissance polymath i.e. a man who has mastery and expertise in one field, but at the same time, he has a lot of deep knowledge about almost every field.
Many of Leonardo's paintings were given the title of Masterpiece, including St. John the Baptist, Madonna of the Rocks, and Salvator Mundi. Da Vinci's work received much acclaim and praise, but he always remained a cause for discussion, surrounded by controversies. His sketches made in his notebook are considered as precious as his paintings.
He has made such a precise and lively picture of horses, faces, flowers and even a child growing in the womb of the mother, which is seen as if this picture will be spoken right now. Leonardo was so genius that he thought ahead of the time he was living and he went ahead of his time to invent many things like parachutes, helicopters, machine guns and he also made sketches of these great inventions.
But did you know that Leonardo was an illegitimate child? His father was a rising lawyer and his mother an ordinary girl working in the fields in a small village. Da Vinci did not follow in his father's footsteps as the children who were born without marriage were not allowed to make a professional career. In this way, Da Vinci made his own way and became one of the greatest artists and thinkers of the world.
In this book, you will learn about 6 such principles that will help you develop multiple skills like Leonardo. You will learn to be a person who does not limit his knowledge to a single field and always wishes to know more and learn.
Leonardo was Italian, so the author of this book, Michael, has expanded these principles in his language. Leonardo has 6 principals - Curiosita (Curiosita) i.e. desire to know, Dimostrazione (Demostrazione) means learning from the experience, sensazione (sensazione) means maximizing your five senses, Sfumato (Sfumato) means not to judge anything immediately. ,  (Art and Science) means to balance between art and logic and Corporalita (corporality) i.e. physical fitness. So let's understand them one by one in detail.


The word Sfumato means to go up or fog up like smoke where nothing is clearly visible. We get a glimpse of it in Leonardo's unique painting style. If you google Mona Lisa's painting, you will see that that painting is very mysterious. No one has known the secret of the Mona Lisa's smile to date. There are so many emotions hidden in him that you will not be able to know what is the real feeling behind his smile. It has been made in such a way that you will not be able to understand the hidden messages in it at once. Good and evil, sidedness and innocence, kindness and cruelty are seen in that light smile. What do you think Leonardo wanted to convey from this?
The very interesting thing about this painting is that if you look closely, you can see that the corner of the Mona Lisa's mouth and eyes are covered in light shade. This thing makes that smile mysterious. The wrinkles of her eyes and the edges of her lips could tell us what she was really feeling in that painting, but Leonardo's intention was that she left it to those who saw the painting as a puzzle.
This is the first principle that we should not judge anything or reach any conclusion immediately. There can be many different aspects of the same thing, so you should adopt the thinking to understand the reason behind it, then you will be able to judge it in the right way. Try to see the situation from a slightly different angle. Looking at something new, questioning it and maintaining the desire to find an answer should be maintained. It helps you understand the difference between truth and falsehood. It increases your thinking power and intelligence.
Perhaps this is the speciality that helped Leonardo do so many inventions. Remember that Genius never comes to any conclusion immediately, he tries to understand it from different angles and then comes to the conclusion.
Over the years, art experts and psychologists have questioned, "Who was the model of this painting after all?" Was she really a girl or just an imagination? " But to date could not give an exact answer to it. Someone said that she was Lisa del Giocondo, the wife of a silk merchant named Francesco del Giocondo. Someone said that the Mona Lisa had a glimpse of all the women Leonardo had seen in his life such as his mother, girlfriend of nobles or ordinary women on the way.
But Dr. of Bell Labs Lillian Schwartz had a different and very interesting view. He believed that the Mona Lisa could have been a picture of Leonardo himself, it is called Self Portrait.
But some people say that Leonardo only had a self-portrait which he made with red chalk. In that painting, his long wavy hair, thick eyebrows and wrinkles around his eyes with age were clearly visible.
Dr Schwartz used computer modelling with precise measurements to simultaneously visualize Mona Lisa's painting and that self-portrait. If you look closely, you will see that the forehead, eyes, nose, lips of Mona Lisa and Leonardo were in the same line. It seemed as if they were like two sides of the same picture.
The Catholic Church, like Michelangelo and Bernini, did not like Leonardo much because Leonardo extracted the meaning of the scene depicted in the Bible from his perspective.
It is said that Madonna of the Rocks and Virgin and Child with St. There are two different versions of Anne painting. One is very shocking and the other is very soft. Master painters like Leonardo do not do anything unconsciously or by coincidence. There was a solid reason behind everything which often the common people could not see. In his painting, the gestures of the faces of the people, the position of the body, the gesture of the hand were all exactly what they want to show them and there was definitely a message hidden even in the smallest thing, whether you agree or not.
Maybe we will never know that Leonardo Last Supper or St. What John really wanted to tell us in John the Baptist. It is up to us how we understand the beauty and mystery of his art.


Since childhood, Leonardo had a desire to know about the world around him. Often he used to go for a walk in the woods with paper and pencil. Whatever used to grab their attention, they would sit down to sketch it. They kept staring at trees, flowers and leaves for hours. He used to write each of his thoughts in a notebook. He had many questions like "How many animals, flowers and rivers are there in this world?" How do these birds fly? Where does a stone collide with water, what starts to become like a roundabout? Don't know why these particular questions keep occupying my mind all the time. "
When Leonardo made a picture of a flower, he made it with three different angles, he would be mesmerized by seeing its beauty and texture. He also found the flight of birds very interesting. How a bird fluttered its wings in the air, they used to capture it in the picture too.
There was another special thing about Leonardo that made him different from other artists. She was not much interested in putting the beauty of women in the picture. He used to work for everyone, whether it was a church or someone else. His art was devoted to nature, beauty and truth.
He wrote these tips on his painting. It is human nature that he can easily find mistakes in the work of others. Therefore, to see what we need to improve in our work, you should study its reflection through a mirror. In this way, you will be able to judge him from a different perspective.
Leonardo believed that while working, small breaks should be taken in between. An artist should also go out for some time and relax. Staying away from our work for some time helps us to see it from a fresh perspective and makes it easy for us to do the rest of the work.
He told about another technique which was to see the painting from a distance. When you look at the painting from a distance, you are able to understand its colours, its shape better. Leonardo often went out on the streets of Florence to carefully observe the beauty of nature and the gestures of people's faces. Sometimes he would see those people who used to capture birds in the cage and sell them.
Leonardo bought them, opened the cage door and freed those birds. He used to watch them flying openly in the blue sky with great love and amazement. It was very happy to see birds flying in the light of the sun, fluttering wings between the rays of the sun.
This Principal teaches us to always awaken the desire to know. The desire to know raises questions in our mind, whose youth we should try to find. It makes our brain sharp, we learn to notice the details. It is said that no one can teach us as much as nature can teach us, so Leonardo used to look at everything present in nature very carefully.


In childhood, Leonardo never got the chance to read and write properly. When he grew up a little, he became a disciple of master painter and sculptor Andrea del Verrochio. In his studio, Leonardo learned how to mix colours and create a canvas. Verrochio believed in learning from experience. He taught Leonardo the work of bronze casting, the art of sculpting, etc. He also taught Leonardo to study the structure of trees, humans and animal bodies. This education helped him a lot. Leonardo's first painting was on Verrocchio's Baptism of Christ. It is said that he made the picture of the angel in the left corner below.
Art experts once tried to look at him through x-rays. He noticed that the strokes made by Verrochio's brush were clearly visible in the x-ray. But Leonardo's brush strokes were so fine and smooth like butter that the x-ray passed through him. He was filled with colour with very good workmanship. So the x-ray crossed it. It seemed as if he had not made a picture but had actually created an angel.
Leonardo became an expert after training and joined a guild. It was a group of doctors and artists named "St. Luke". To understand the structure of the body, Leonardo had also cut the bodies of about thirty humans and the bodies of countless animals. He made pictures of his body parts in his notebook. This is the reason why the sketch of the physical body was so perfect in his painting.
Leonardo believed in learning from practical experience by testing things. He believed that he should not believe what he heard, rather he should test himself and increase his independent thinking. He said that there can be no better teacher than nature, so look closely at the things around you, she will teach you a lot.
Another interesting thing about Leonardo is that he himself learned Latin at the age of 42 so that he can understand what is written in the classics better. He had read many books of medicine, maths, martial arts. In one place, he wrote, "Experiences are never wrong." You fail only when you expect to get immediate results from your experiment. " Along with this, he also wrote that “Interruption cannot bow to me. Every obstacle is shattered with firm intentions and perseverance. "
Leonardo loved to experiment. Many of them also failed miserably, but the failure never stopped them from trying again. Due to this particular feature, he was able to do countless inventions.


Leonardo used to give great importance to our five sense organs. He believed that we should use it more and more. This principle means watching everything carefully in detail. They increase your brain power and learning skills. They make us genius by increasing our focus. Using senses more means listening intently to every voice, taking full flavour of the food you are eating, looking at the details of everything through the eyes.
Leonardo always used his sense more and more. He carefully observed and learned from the surroundings, mountains, waterfalls, animals and the gestures of people. He wore as many nice clothes as he could. He filled his studio with the fragrance of flowers and perfumes. He loved to eat healthy food in a low quantity which was beautifully decorated on a plate.
Did you know that Leonardo was also a musician? He could play many instruments along with Veena and flute. It is said that his voice was also very melodious. When he was hired by Milan's Ludovico Sforza, Leonardo made a silver harp the size of a horse's head and gave it to Ludovico Sforza as a gift.
Leonardo used to say that it is very sad that most people do not use their senses properly, they used to eat just to fill their stomach but did not taste it, they used to speak but without thinking, they used to listen but feel something Used not to.
Let me tell you sincerely when was the last time you praised the beauty of the moon and stars by looking at the sky? When was the last time you ate your food without haste? We do not appreciate what we have. Nature has given you sens organs, try to be more sensitive towards them. Today we have become so busy that just exist, are not living. If you also want to feel the true meaning of living, then use your sense more like Leonardo and enjoy every moment of life to the fullest.

Arte / Scienza:

If Leonardo was left-handed, then it can be said that his right brain was more active. But as you know, he was not only an artist but was also a scientist. He also had a very unique habit, he used to practice mirror writing. All his notebooks were written in the same way. Some psychologists tried to understand the deep meaning behind why Leonardo used to write in reverse. But then he thought that it would be more comfortable for him because he used to write with the left hand.
In 1994, Bill Gates purchased 18 pages of Leonardo's notebooks for $ 30 million. Science has provided that the left part of the brain works with logic and reasoning and the right part with imagination and creativity. But Leonardo believed that both art and science go together, these two cannot be separated from each other. He looked closely at the human body, flowing water, flowering plant and used it to express his art. He used the exact measurement of maths to outline his paintings and sculptures. In this way, Leonardo insisted on using the entire brain for thinking.
He said that people who shape their art without applying science are like sailors who go out on sea journey without a compass, such people can never reach their destination. He believed that an artist must study his human structure to bring the beauty of the human being to the canvas. Without this knowledge, the painter will be able to take a picture of only the inanimate people, in which there will be no beauty and art.
Leonardo encouraged his students to pay attention to detail, logic and mathematics and said that in addition to this, they should openly use their imagination power as well.
His ability to see the whole picture, rather than looking at small things, helped him to produce a very accurate map without the help of modern technology. He used to say, "Study the science of art and study the art of science" means "Understand the science behind art and look at the art behind the science." Leonardo is perhaps the only great artist who has given us many unique inventions, sketches and notes which are considered as precious today as they were in his time.


In addition to puzzles and jokes in Leonardo's notebook, you will also find many interesting tips about good health and physical fitness. He believed that good health gives you a fit mind.
Giorgio Vasari, who wrote about many famous artists, says Leonardo that was very skilled in horse riding. He also used to do swimming and fencing as an exercise. These things made Leonardo's body very strong, attractive and fit.
Leonardo has also given some health tips in his notebook. They say to stay away from anger and sadness. Keep your mind happy. Exercise every day. Pay attention to what you are eating. Chew the food slowly and eat it. Eat food only when you are hungry and eat light food. Take good sleep at night and keep your digestive system fine.
Leonardo was a vegetarian and he was also an expert in cooking. According to them, creating a balance between healthy eating and exercise gives you good health.


King Francois I of France hired Leonardo as a painter, architect and engineer, but in fact, he discussed in depth with the king the wisdom and philosophy. The king gave him a wonderful Bengali to live in and he was also given a salary every month. At the age of 67, Leonardo said goodbye to the world while living there.
In his last days, Leonardo also wrote about the symptoms of his illness. He left all his belongings to his loyal student Francesco Melzi. It is said that he had developed a deep friendship with the king and took his last breaths in the arms of the king.
Some people say that Leonardo was a homo, then many people say that he was a free thinker whose thinking was different from religion, and nothing is known but there is a truth that no one can change that he was a genius. He was a great artist who devoted his entire life to art, science, nature and its beauty.
So in this book, you learned about the six principles that will help you achieve the full potential of your body and mind like Leonardo.
Curiosita (Curiosita) means to maintain the desire to know and learn. The more you ask questions, the more you will know about the field that will make you it's master. Maintain a journal or notebook in which you can write your ideas, thoughts and learned things. It helps you achieve your goals.
Dimostrazione (Dimostrazione) means that anything or theory should not be accepted only, rather it should be tested, and take action by doing it yourself. Nothing can teach you more than experience. So don't be afraid to make mistakes and look at every failure as an opportunity to learn. Practical experience teaches us in a more effective way.
sensation (our senses) means our five senses. Use your sense organs as much as possible. Look at things carefully, understand their details. Feel what you are seeing, listening, touching, be fully present in that moment. If you are eating something, taste every ingredient of it, if you are touching something, feel it. It increases your focus.
Sfumato (sfumato) means do not judge anything immediately and do not reach any conclusion. There can be many different aspects of the same thing, so try to understand it. Think of understanding the reason behind it.
arte / Scienza (Art and Sinja) means to develop a balance between art and science, the balance between logic and imagination. Do not limit the capacity of your mind. Try to create a balance between logic and creativity. Learn to give Importance to both. Most of us use either the left brain or the right brain, and to be more honest, we actually use a very little part of our brain. But if you want to become a genius, then you have to start using both parts.
Corporalita (corporality) means body and mind care. Body and mind are connected to each other, so eat healthy food, get full sleep and exercise because the more physically fit and strong we are, the more we will become mentally strong which will help to increase our focus and creativity.
How can it be possible for a single person to have such knowledge of art, engineering, botany, mathematics and even every field? You can also achieve this. If you use your one minute productively and awaken your desire to learn more and aim for excellence, then you too can become a genius. If you have learned how to apply these 6 principles well, then your productivity and focus will definitely increase and who knows that in the coming time you will come to a revolution by inventing something for which you will be called Genius Will be written

Summaries World  About this Book: Are you a cricket fan? So read this inspirational book by Yuvraj Singh, which is the story of a young cri...

Summaries World 

About this Book:

Are you a cricket fan? So read this inspirational book by Yuvraj Singh, which is the story of a young cricketer who had to quit cricket after suffering a cancer-like illness in the peak time of his career, but Yuvi returned to the world of cricket by defeating Cassander like a true fighter and Message to our millions of fans that we do not have to run away from the disciples, but have to face them firmly. In this, Yuvi has shared many funny and heartbreaking stories of her life. There were many ups and downs in Yuvi's life, yet he always kept himself strong and never gave up.

Who should read this summary? Who will learn from this summary?
• Cricket fans
• People who are fighting a Sirius disease
• Those who want inspiration in life

About the Author:

Yuvraj Singh is an Indian batsman. He was born and raised in Chandigarh. At the age of 19, Yuvi started playing for Team India. In 2001, he came to know about his cancer and after recovering completely from this disease, Yuvi came back into the world of cricket. In the year 2009, Yuvraj Singh took retirement from cricket and now runs one of his foundation UVCans to help cancer patients.

The Test Of My Life - Book summary - Yuvraj Singh - Summaries World

Now we Start Summary:


"The Test of My Life" is an autobiography of the famous Indian batsman Yuvraj Singh. Many people have been inspired to read this book. Through this book, Yuvi has shared his love for cricket and his cancer illness. In this book, you will read the complete story of Yuvraj Singh from his cricket enthusiasts to becoming the player of Team India and will also know how many struggles he had to make to reach here. Illness was discovered which had a great impact on his life and career. But in spite of all this, Yuvraj Singh never gave up. How did Yuvraj Singh return to the cricket world after defeating cancer, you will get to read this book. He has written a book and also started a foundation for cancer patients called "UVCan" which creates awareness about serious diseases like cancer and also provides free check-ups to cancer patients. If you are a cricket fan or you want to read an inspiring story, then this book is a must for you Should read.
All the Way to India
I have had an interest in sports since childhood. During school time, I always used to wait for recess and physical training, but I did not like much of the subjects. So my grades were not good. My friend Anchal used to help me in my studies, despite this my score was always less than the average. Once upon a time, I was battling with my friends, then accidentally shot a man who was going by scooter. The ball hit him very hard. The man fell down from the scooter and immediately got up and ran after us.
I remember this thing to this day. My father had my admission to Yadavindra Public School. At that time, Navjot Singh Sidhu, a famous batsman of India, used to practice in Maharani Club. One day my father took me to him and asked Sidhu whether he would see my batting. After my batting, Sidhu said to my father, "This boy is not made for cricket" but my father was also not one of those who gave up. They had thought that they would get me a place in the national team. He has never been discharged, nor has I let him be.
One morning my father told me to practice. It was very cold that day. I lay in bed. I was making excuses that I did not listen to his voice. After a while, my father came to my room and poured a bucket of cold water on my head. I got very angry with him that day.
But the day I performed well, I used to think that my father has only one dream to see me becoming a great cricketer. I also felt that cricket is the only thing that can give me freedom. Relations between my parents were not good. My younger brother Zoravar is 8 years younger than me. In order to avoid whatever problem was there between my parents, I had focused all my attention on cricket. But my younger brother Zoravar was crushing between the parents' quarrels. My mother had never even tried to solve the problems of her married life.
This used to bother me a lot because my mother is the support system for me. My father was very strict about cricket from the beginning. Till my entire teenage years, he kept me in strict discipline. Once when I was out at 39 while playing a Ranji practice match, my father got very angry. He told me on the phone 'Don't come home now or else I will kill you with my life. And I had to sleep in my car parked outside the house all night.
The next morning when I came inside the house, my father hit me with a glass of milk on my face. Once again, due to a fracture in the back, I had mistaken in fielding. That night when I reached home, I saw the father breaking the sound system of my car. Hearing the negative comments of my seniors from above, it became difficult for me to live. I scored 100 in the final Ranji Trophy. My father called me and asked, "how was the match"?
"I made a century", I said proudly. On this, my father said, "Why didn't you make 200 runs?" I was dissolved by his words. Then the father called me again and said that he hid my car keys somewhere. After this, I went to play the Under 19 World Cup. I was selected Player of the Tournament. And that's how I entered the Indian National Team. In my first match, I scored a score of 84 and became the man of the match. With my first paycheck, I bought a house for my mother.

The Top-of-the-World Cup:

The 2011 World Cup was nothing short of an epic adventure for us. We were playing against England. In 2010, there was a strain in my neck due to which there was a big pen, the pain was so much that I could not even see my head. MRI had a disc bulge. Our team physiotherapist Nitin Patel was called to fix my neck but to no avail.
My turn was at number 4. I had played two balls that suddenly felt a blow to the neck, after that, it became amazing, I started playing Dhundhar and made very good scores. I was quite an inspiration from Sachin Tendulkar, it was a great achievement for me that we were teammates. Before playing the World Cup, Sachin told me that I should play a tournament for someone whom I give respect to or love. Sachin always motored me and my teammates.
Once our team was having dinner in Mexico, a fan came to Ravindra Jadeja and started shouting at him. He was shouting 'How did you get out so soon?' And was giving dirty profanity. The matter went awry and even came in the news. We were labelled as being overpaid and irresponsible. I was dropped from the team after this incident. But then in July, I was selected to play against Sri Lanka. Before the World Cup, I selected two bats. In one, I wrote World Cup No. 1 and in the other World Cup No. 2.
In the match that was against South Africa, I played with the number 1 bat. While going to Dhaka, I could not find my bat number 2. But I did not know that my mother had bought someone with that bat Chandigarh. Mother took the bat to get blessings from Baba Ji, there was a huge crowd in Sangat. When Babaji saw the bat, he immediately said, "This is the bat of Yuvi". He recognized my bat. It was the same bat with which I played in the World Cup. Babaji told everyone that he should bless this bat. My mother had reached Bangalore before the match started. He gave me back my bat number 2. In the World Cup, I scored a total of 352 runs, with four fours and a century.

C 'Change Form Cricket to Cancer:

The one I trust the most in the health business is Jatin Chaudhary. She is a physiotherapist and acupuncture specialist. I met him for the first time in 2006 when I was hurt once near my left knee. Then in 2008, when I received a shoulder injury, my trust in him increased further. When I came to know about my tumour for the first time, at that time also gave more importance to Jatin's therapy and opinion. Due to my cough, Doctor Kohli asked me to get an x-ray done. When I was leaving, Jatin stopped me and asked me to check the X-ray plates.
There was a wrinkle on the doctor's forehead and Jatin was feeling quite tense. A white blur was clearly visible in the X-ray. The doctor told me to get an FNAC test done. The next day I got my CT scan done. Later, Dr Kohli called me, he told me, "There is bad news for you". I had a tumour in my lung. Dr Kohli also said that this tumour can be the beginning of cancer. My wax had gone to the gurudwara at that time. Jatin gave this news by calling him. When mother came back and we saw each other, she started crying on seeing me. I also shared this news with my close friends. Doctor Parameswaran immediately told me to get admitted to the hospital.
Anything I eat or drink, my body would be rejected. I used to get upside down immediately after eating a few. Meanwhile, the Puma brand asked me for shooting dates. This was an endorsement deal that I was going to do with Bolt, Alonso and Aguero. I had already signed this deal. Usain Bolt is a Jamaican sprinter. Fernando Alonso is a Spanish race car driver and Sergio Aguero is an Argentine footballer. I gave dates of Puma to January 2012 when I could be free.
But when I came to know about my cancer, I informed Puma about it. But he did not take this deal back from me, rather he said that he will wait for my recovery. But I had to complete my promise. So I went to shoot. We had to run on a treadmill there. Alonso gave me an autograph on my cap. Wearing this cap, I used to see him racing. But I could not get a chance to meet Bolt. He had left after shooting his part. I knew that Bolt is a fan of cricket, I would be very happy to meet him if I had found him.
After collaborating with and working with these World Famous Athletes, for some time I forgot that I have a Lung Tumor. But whenever I had a cough, blood came out of my mouth. As an athlete, I was taught to tolerate pain. I remember Anil Kumble, the great Indian cricketer who played a match against the West Indies with a broken jaw.

The Test of My Life:

I went to London and met Doctor Harper. They told me that I would have to go through four cycles of chemotherapy. He also said that my hair will grow out of chemotherapy but will grow back later. Then due to a last-minute plan change, I came to Indianapolis. Here Dr Einhorn was going to treat me. He was the same doctor who had previously treated Lens Armstrong. Lance is an American racing cyclist who had cancer.
I told Doctor Harper about my plan change and apologized. So Dr Harper said that I will get the same treatment in London. But he also said that if his son had cancer, he would have sent him to doctor Ehorn as well. Doctor Ehorn is a well-known expert. He told me that after three chemotherapy cycles in two months, I will be fine as if I had never had cancer. I asked him whether I would be able to become a father after chemotherapy. So he told that chemotherapy reduces the fertility rate by up to 60% but now it is only 10% less. That means my hope of becoming a father was still left.

I read Lance Armstrong's book "It's Not About the Bike". When I read it the first time, I thought it would be quite depressing. But when read again, it was found that Armstrong went to the sperm bank where he had his sperm preserved. They later had three children. That too when Lance had testicular cancer. On the days when I was getting chemotherapy, I did not feel hungry nor sleepy. I used to keep making my videos. I had also made a diary.
So far, through media in India, everyone had found out about this disease, later it came to light that two people on whom I had a lot of trusts, had spread the news about me in the media. One of them was an Indian journalist who used my blackberry updates to deliver the news. The second was Jatin Chaudhary. He went to a news channel and told me everything about me. As soon as the news of my cancer spread, I started getting many calls from fans, ranging from children to film actors. Then I thought I would inform everyone through Twitter officially.
During my sick days, I used to play video games or surf the net. My mother would buy groceries and cook for herself. Some 15 days after taking chemotherapy, one day when I woke up, I saw a bunch of hairs on my bed. My hair was falling out, immediately I decided that I would go bald and I shaved my head. I took a pick of mine and posted it on Twitter.
My manager Nishant told me that Anil Kumble is in Boston and wants to meet me. I thought he might not be able to come but Anil came to see me. He forbade me to watch his old cricket videos on YouTube. And also said that one day cricket will definitely come back in my life. Anil gave me the courage and said that at this time I should first focus on my recovery.
At the time of the thread cycle, Dr Einhorn told me that there would be no chemotherapy that day. After seeing my results, he told me that the tumour has gone away, only some remaining tissue is left. Doctor Ehorn decided to change the drug schedule. The last cycle was now five days later. Hearing this news, suddenly I felt like now I can sing, laugh and do whatever I want!

Taking Guard Again:

The person who first came to meet me after my treatment was Sachin Tendulkar. He hugged me tightly and encouraged me. Dr Einhorn told me that I will have to stay in hospital for 10 more days for recovery. At that time my condition was such that I was not able to stand up properly, I used to think of dying again and again. Soon I returned to India. I reached my home in Gurgaon.
I saw a man there who shook hands with me. I told him "Sorry, I did not recognize you. He was my lawyer In fact, after chemotherapy, I had lost short term memory loss, which often happens in cancer patients. When I had a flight, JetAirways crew members took great care of me. Everyone was surprised to see me, but they continued to behave in a professional way. In the midst of his duty, those people made a card for me. Everyone looked at him. The card read "Welcome Home Yuvi, Get Well Soon".
One such time when I went to the mall, I went inside an Indian cafe there. People had recognized me, all came to me and were giving the best wishes. Even those I did not know, those people were giving me food packets which they had ordered for me, this reaction of people made me very emotional. On coming home, I told my mother about the Indian Cafe. She smiled and said that she knows that people support her.
When I saw my Badar Zorawar, I felt that a big tension has gone away. He had learned to live without his mother and me for so many days. I also went to Chandigarh to meet my Guruji. Wherever I went, everyone gave me lots of love and blessings. Before going back to Sirius training again, I went on a 10-day vacation with my friends. We used to go to Spain, we used to enjoy long drives, pool parties and diners. Coming back to India, I notice that my weight has increased. I already had 103 KG. The time had come that I should start training and come back to the field.

The Battle for Confidence:

One day when I went to the roof of my house, I was surprised to see a peacock there. There is a lot of beliefs about Peacock like some people say that coming to the house is auspicious, then some people call it bad luck. I gave a voice to my mother that comes soon, the peacock has come on the roof. But below that, I heard his voice saying "Selection, Selection". My mother had received news that I have been selected in the Indian team for the World T20. But those days my endurance level was low and my cardio-vascular strength was also almost zero.
The team trainers helped me a lot to get back fit. They told me that I should forget that I had ever been cancerous. Those people were treating me like a regular player who has not worked out for 6 months. The training was going so hard that many times I was forced to question myself whether I would ever be able to return to international cricket. BCCI or Board of Control for Cricket in India took great care of me. He had full attention to my privacy and was paying all my expenses, checking my progress and gave me every opportunity to get into the field.
During training, I used to fear that the ball might hit me or I might get hurt. Initially, we practised with a tennis ball and then later with a cricket ball. I have been selected in T20, this news was completely viral. The comments of the people who came were supposed to be emotional. My three months of practice and hard work came in. However, I did not like that my selection was being viewed as a favour to me. I had to go to Visakhapatnam for my first match. Everyone who saw me there, from my teammates to the driver of the bus and the children on the road, came to shake hands with me.
Ravi Shastri wanted to do a live interview with me. I saw banners in there which said "Good-by Cancer, Welcome Sixer" When I reached the stadium, Crowd stood up and cheered for me and played applause. It was raining a lot that day the field was flooded, we had to postpone the match. When I was very disappointed, my family and friends reached out to encourage me so that I could play well. One night before this, I wrote a letter to Dr Einhorn and said that I am very thankful to him for saving my life.
Now the match was to be rescheduled after four days. We won the toss against New Zealand and decided to field first. New Zealand's score was quite good due to having Braden McCullum on the team. We lost this match by one run. But I bowled for two hours for 14 and scored 32 runs in 24 balls with Chokke and two sixes. We won by one run against Pakistan. But we were knocked out in the tournament. I was the "Player of the Match" in this match. After cancer, a lot had changed in my life.
Earlier all my focus was only on games, I had never taken my health seriously. I thought I'd start a cancer charity, and I started a foundation called UVCan. After retiring from cricket, I want to work full time for UV. Through this charitable trust, I will raise funds for the help of cancer patients and I will create awareness about this disease. I am thankful to my friends, family and cricket for what I have achieved in my life. If I ever fail again, I know that I can stand up like a true fighter again and fight with full force.


In this book, you will get all the stories that will inspire you, as well as the courage, determination and feeling of heroism that will also awaken in you. In this book, you will read about Yuvraj Singh's earlier life and his love and passion for sports. He was very determined about cricket and how much he struggled to get a place in Team India, you will get to read this book.
From this book, you will know how Yuvi's life was after joining the Indian cricket team and when he came to know about his cancer. Yuvi took a long fight with cancer and came out of this disease by becoming a winner in last, all these things are mentioned in this book which you will read. This is a motivational book for those people who are facing different types of challenges in their life.

Summaries World About This Book: This book teaches you how to become rich and how to become rich if you are rich. From this you will learn h...

Summaries World

About This Book:

This book teaches you how to become rich and how to become rich if you are rich. From this you will learn how to fulfill your dream. It is a fact that every human being can become rich. But you will find its secret in this book. Once you follow the techniques of this book, then see what you dreamed of living life, it will definitely be fulfilled. So are you ready to be rich? So read the book today and know the scientific way of becoming rich.

Who should read this book?

Daily Wagers, people working in every field, every person who wants to become rich and successful. Every person who dreams big, and who wants to achieve a lot in life.

About author:

Wallace D. Wattles is a self-help writer and New Thought Expert. In 1910, his best seller book, "The Science of Getting Rich" was published. Wallace  was born in a poor family, but when he died, he was a rich and respectable person. The techniques that he has given in this book to become rich, he has applied in his real life and proves that if he can become rich then everyone can become rich.

The Science Of Getting Rich - Book Summary - D. Wattles Wallace

Now we Start Summary:


Do you dream of getting rich? Do you want to live a good life? Do you want to be the best in life? So in this book you will read the secret of success, happiness and becoming rich. Regardless of the background from which you live, you can still be rich. Your dreams can come true. Because this book will tell you the eject way to become rich. Just follow the techniques and guidelines given in this book.
The life you want to live is not far from you. But for this you have to think in a certain way. Whatever you have, you should be thankful towards others. Your effort should be that you can help others. If you apply the things you read in this book in your life, then no one will stop you from getting rich.

The Right to be Rich:

Is it wrong to want to be rich? Who doesn't want a relaxing life? Is it wrong to dream? No, not at all. Rich is not just about money. Rather it means that you should have tools that develop your body, mind and soul. He who is rich can achieve his full potential. For a healthy body, you need food, clothes and a roof over your head, along with this you should also get a complete rest so that you can recirculate. But all this will happen to you when you have richness.
For healthy mind, we should read good and motivational books. We should travel so that we can explore this world. We should have an understanding of art and should also come to appreciate art. But you need money to read and write, to study and to roam the world. Love everyone to keep your soul pure. To become a good life partner, good parent and a good citizen of the country, you must be rich. And the potential to be rich is within everyone. This book will work as a guide for you, which will tell you how to become rich so that you can live your life freely.

The Science of Getting Rich:

If you follow the steps given in this book, then your dream of becoming rich can be fulfilled. This is its science because you have to do things in a certain way. Who you are, no matter what happens because when you apply things in a certain way, then of course you can become rich. And for this you do not even need to be born in a rich family. Because if this happens, all the people of one place would be rich and the other place would be poor.
Now let's take an example of developing countries where many people are forced to live a life of poverty. But here some people also live very rich life. So why is that? Let's assume Mr. A and Mr. B live in the same town. Both do business of selling fruits. But Mr. A becomes rich while Mr. B remains poor. So why did this happen? The truth is that a person is not rich because of his environment, but because he does things in a certain way. Is being rich a unique talent or a skill? Let's take another exam.
Mr. X's and Mr. Y's. Both are master carpenters. Both have amazing carpentry skills. But Mr. X becomes rich and Mr. Y remains the same. Therefore we can assume that no special talent is required to become rich. Simply, you have to apply science to get rich, that is, you have to do things in a certain way. You have to take some effective steps. Then no matter where and in which position you are in your life. Regardless of whether you have money or not or you do not have any identity or you have rich friends or not, you can still become rich. Just follow the steps of this book and fulfill your dream.

Is Opportunity Monopolized:

It would be completely wrong to say that only some people are in possession of all the comforts of the world, that is why the rest of the people are living in poverty. The truth is that there is plenty of opportunities and opportunities for everyone in this world. Because the top and the natures have no shortage of anything. There is a formless substance in this universe.
An untrapped energy that can be useful to us. And you have the power to transfer this formless energy into your control. Whatever you want to get, you can transform this energy into that thing. This is the way that can also make you a rich person of this world.

The First Principle in the Science of Getting Rich:

How will you create what you want from the formless substrates around you? So the answer is "Thout" means your thoughts. Imagination inside you. Everything you are using today is the result of everything. For example, the chair in which you are sitting, the book you are reading, the internet and the smartphone that you use. All these things came first in someone's mind. Everything we use was once an idea.
The modern technology that we are using today is also the result of the series of Thought. The building in which you work or live is also the result of a series of thoughts. Human is a thinking machine. The truth is that we do not yet know the power of our thoughts. Now you will learn the first 3 Principals of "Science of Getting Rich" here. The first principal is "a formless substance that surrounds this entire universe". The second principal is "our one thot can give this substance a form" and the third principal is "any human being can convert formless substance from his thot into what he needs".
This is a way of thinking in the certain way:
If you really want something, then you have to think about it in such a way that you get that thing. Keep all the details of that thing in your mind. Feel it, look and touch it. Think you have achieved that thing. Deeply focus on that thing. Never misunderstand your idea. In this way, your fat will give a shape to that formless substance. And a time will come when that thing will really be yours.
Similarly, if you want to be rich, do not ever think about poverty. If you consider yourself healthy, you will not fall ill. There is a power in our positive thoughts. So always take care of richness in your mind. If you consider yourself rich, then you will become rich and if you consider poor and helpless, then that will become your destiny. Believe in yourself One day your dreams will definitely come true. Do not leave any room for doubt. No matter what the circumstances, do not give up. And always believe that one day you will be rich.

Increasing Life:

If you want everything in life, then you have to be rich. You have to be rich to live life full. Do you know Maslow's Hierarchy of Need? It says that the biggest need of man is food, clothes and home. After that comes security. And if someone has all these things, then he can use his full potential. You need money to complete basic needs of food, clothes and home.
Therefore, the desire to become rich means that you want to become a best person. This is the desire to be happy, to be successful and to get love and to love. And who wouldn't want all this? The one above wants you to be rich. Because you will be rich only then you will be able to become a battering instrument. So that the uppermost can help more and more people through you. The Universe wants to see you rich. That is why Nature has so much to give us, which we cannot even imagine. And you have to remember this thing. Your dream of getting rich is not only yours but it is also included in the will of the above and the Universe. Your purpose is to create, not to destroy.
You do not have to be rich to get greed or fun, but you have to work for others. You have to take good care of your body, soul and mind and for this you have to become rich. You have to use your richness to make proper arrangements for your food, clothes and shelter. You have to become rich to roam the world and learn new things. You have to be rich to discover the truth. You have to become rich so that you can love people, share love among people and do good work.
The goal of your becoming rich is not competition but creation. Because cheating, stealing and taking advantage of someone is totally wrong. You do not have any right over what is not yours. Money that is earned in any competition never gives true happiness and ends soon. Because you have such money today, then tomorrow someone else will have it. So do not compete. Because whatever belongs to you will be yours. Because there is no dearth of formless substances in this universe.

How Riches Come to You:

Now, how to ejectively find what you want. That is, how to convert formless substrates into reality. And that's the way with the power of your thoughts. For example, suppose you want a sewing machine. First of all, a clear image of the sewing machine will be created in your mind. You will think about every one of its details. Then think that you have got a sewing machine.
It is yours. Do not reboot. Just make sure you have a sewing machine. Now the formless substance will find a way out and the sewing machine will reach you. Of course you do not get it immediately. But if your purpose is to improve the life of yourself and others, then the Universe will keep this sewing machine-accessible to you. Just you have to be sure.
Once there was a poor man named Bill. He was a daily wage earner. Bill lived in a small flat and somehow managed to get food three times. Bill used to wear the same clothes every day to work. One day he thought that he would ask for a new mat and a coal stove for gold from the above, which he could use in the winters. Bill also followed the steps given in this book. His mind had a clear image of Stove and Matt. He had no doubt that he would not get these things. Then what?
Soon after a few months, Bill bought a mat and stove. Because he got a bonus for good performance in the job. Then Bill thought that he could take other things like this as well. How would it be if he dreams of home this time? So he imagined the details of the house. He used to think that where would be the window of that house, where would the chair be kept and what would be the rest of the things. After that Bill started living as if his house had been really built.
Because of this, his performance at work also started getting better. He also started taking care of his health. He used to get up early in the morning and start the day with a positive attitude. And within a few years, Bill bought a house of his own. He had also dreamed of a Loving Family and that too was fulfilled. Bill is rich today because he never doted on his dreams.


Thank you for whatever you find good and full. In this way, you can maintain a good relationship with formless substances and the universe. Because there are many rich people who were ungrateful and today they are poor again. If you remain beautiful, then you will become more rich. You will get more blessings of people. Because by being full, we get even more rich with the above.
With this, you maintain a harmony-filled relationship with formless substances. The day you forget to thank, the day you become a mean, arrogant and ungrateful human, your wealth ends the same day. A Grateful Mind does very well and it gets everything good in return. So be thankful for what you have. Enjoy what you have and give inspiration to others as well.
Thinking in the certain way
A clear image of what you want should be in your mind, because you cannot make a goal just like that. If you want a home, then you have to think "I want a beautiful house" and also set a deadline. It is important to have an eject photo of your dream home in your mind. You have to show how the house looks, how big it is, how its interior should be. Some people say "I want to be successful" or "I want a lot of money" but all these things are talked about. There is no clarity in them.
You have to send a special message to the formless substance, then your dreams will come true. So make a clear image about what you want, only then you will be able to get that thing. Just think that you send an email to your friend, in which some words are written. You give a clear message to your friend that will understand it. But if you pick up any words from the dictionary and message him, will he understand? Unless you give a clear message to such formless substance, it will not be understood as well.
You have to create a passion for your dreams, that is, you want that thing in every situation. Take care of the same thing in your free time, make a detailed image of it in the mind and assume that you have got that thing. Make it as real as possible. And don't forget to thank the upstairs for that. Prayer does not just mean repeating words.
An image should always be in your mind. Wherever you are, whatever you do, this image will stay with you. Now, the next thing is to be happy. What if you find something you dream of? Live your day in happiness and with a hope. And never forget your purpose. Because this is the difference between a scientist and a day-dreamer.

How to Use the Will: (How to Use Your Willpower) 

You have to use your power only for yourself. Because you cannot force others to do like you. Yes, but you can inspire others by setting your example in front of them. It would be wrong to use your will power on others. You cannot tell them "this is good for you" because you really do not know what is good for someone else and what is bad. Similarly, you can also apply Science of Getting Rich on your own.
That's why you focus on a certain way and take action. Do not impose your ideas on others. Remember that you have to maintain a positive impression with this formless substance. There is no place for any doubt or scope for this. Each of your events will take you away from your dreams. So protect your dreams. Never think of poverty or disease. If you really want to become rich, then take out the idea of ​​being poor. One cannot become rich by thinking about poverty. One cannot be healthy by thinking about the disease.
If you keep thinking about the wrong thing, you can never take the right steps. In the same way, by thinking about negative things, you will start to attract them to your side. It would be good for you to stay away from charity. No, we do not ask you to be stone-hearted. Rather than giving bread to a poor person, it is better to inspire him, provide him an opportunity. You have to put the idea of ​​richness in their mind. This is the best way to remove the problem of the poor. Suppose you gave money or bread to a poor person today, but tomorrow he will have nothing. So do not help the poor, rather give him a solution to alleviate poverty. You can teach them how to overcome their poverty.
But how will you do it? For this, you have to remove the poverty of your life first. You can give inspiration to others by giving one of your exams. If poor people see you becoming rich from poor then they will understand that it is possible to become rich. And then like you, they too will be inspired to do something in their life. Imagine that you are climbing the ladder of richness and you are inspiring others to climb it too. You do not fall down that ladder because you do not want to bring others down. Rather you help them to rise up. You guide the poor people and show them the way to become rich so that they too can use their full potential and bring a positive change in their life.
Acting in a certain way (Working in a certain way) Acting in the Certain Way
When we say that think in a certain way, what does it mean? That is, it is important to have a clear idea of ​​what you want. What does acting in a certain way mean? It means whatever you do, do it now. That means live in your present. To become rich, one has to forget the past and leave the tension of the future. Just pay attention to your today. Do what is today, do it and do it in the best way. There is no more important time than today.
For example, if you are thinking of doing some business or want to start a new job, then take action today. Do not wait for any external motivation. If you work right today, then the future will also be good. If your promotion is not being done in your present job then it will definitely be in the next job. You keep giving your best. You will definitely get the opportunity. The sooner you take action, the sooner you will reach the floor and the sooner your dreams will come true.

Efficient Action:

Live every day to the fullest Make yourself as productive as possible. Because if you do not do this then you are nothing more than a burden on the economy, on the government, and on this world. Every day you either bring success to you or you are a failure. But if there is more failure in your part then you will be poor. And if there are more days when you are full, then you can become a rich man. Those who postpone their work today, they have to repent later. Imagine a raindrop.
Even a single drop can cause a stir in the water, so you can understand what is the importance of a single task. Where small well-being can create many opportunities. The same bad work can also cause life in problems. And note one thing that there is a difference between being productive and being busy. So always do the same thing that has some benefit. And do all your work in an efficient way. Only then you can call yourself productive. Those who make themselves productive every day, they get success and richness only.

Getting Into the Right Business: (Choosing the Right Business)

Invest in the business in which you are most interested. What do you like best? The best profession or business for you will be what your hobby is. Your happiness and the way to get rich are just this. But if you think that there is no talent or skill in you, then there is no reason for tension because life always gives us a chance to learn. Train yourself as much as you can. Do not consider training as work, but enjoy it like fun. Of course, if you don't like your work right now, still give it your best. Always be productive and motivated. Because this will open the way for opportunities for you.

The Impression of Increase:

We all want to achieve the maximum in life. It is a natural cheese. We want more knowledge, more beauty, more money, and more happiness. We all want to grow in life. Thank the people who are in your life, whom you meet every day. Give more effort, energy, and service in every work. If you run a business for example, give your customers maximum value.
Give them not only their service and product but also some extras that they will always remember and remain your customer. You can make small things valuable such as submitting a file to your colleague, keep a smile on your face so that it also looks good. In this way you cultivate your future growth and you will get opportunities to move forward. People will get a sign of success inside you. And they will be more attracted to you and would like to do business with you. Above all, this universe and life source will generate energy to grow in you.
And in this way, you will get even more blessing of people and you will be able to enjoy all kinds of pleasure. But after achieving success, do not wish to control others. Because it will give a negative effect to your progress. Be the master of your mind and not of slaves. Always keep one thing in mind, "What I want for myself, I want the same for everyone" If you walk with this mindset, then the whole world will be in your steps and you will get every happiness in this world. Because the person who shares, gets the same.

The Advancing Man:

The techniques of this book can be applied to all, irrespective of the field. You can use the rule of increments, whether you are a daily wager, or run your business or whether you are a lawyer or an executive. For example, a doctor who cares for his patient and serves him more, the more patients will come to him. And in this way he will become a famous and successful doctor. A teacher who teaches his students wholeheartedly and helps them to move forward, can never miss his job, because he has a favorite of his students. He has the blessings of the people.
So what if you are daily veg, never think that you cannot become rich, or you will not get a chance to grow. The uppermost is watching your hard work and your skills. And the time will definitely come when you will get the fruits of your hard work. You will definitely get a chance to move ahead with what you are today. Because you are older than your role, of course you have not got promotion yet but you will definitely get one day. Or your boss does not appreciate your work, then someone else will definitely do. You will soon get what you reserve.
If you live with a belief every day, if there is a purpose in your life then you can never fail. We tell you the story of Charlie who was a wedge earner. After working as a clerk for 10 years, he had so many savings that he could start his own farm. Charlie always wanted to buy a farm where he grew vegetables and raised some animals. This dream was in his mind for many years, which was finally completed one day. Charlie bought a ten-acre land from his savings and formed a farm on it. Charlie worked hard. He used to grow different vegetables according to the season. He also kept some animals in the farm such as piglets, chickens and ducks.
Charlie and his wife began selling farm vegetables and animal products such as eggs, chicken, etc. in the market. Gradually their profit increased. Charlie bought some more land and kept animals there too. He told his relatives that those people should work with him in the farm. Then he also offered to work together with his neighbors. And in this way Charlie changed the lives of others along with him. His business was growing tremendously. Charlie used to give value to his work, that's why his customers kept on growing. Charlie had become a rich man now. It was because of his good and firm intentions that Charlie managed to overcome his poverty.


Through this book, you learned that everyone has the right to richness. Everyone has the right to become rich. Because there is an opportunity for everyone in this world. This formless substance is limitless. Every person who has a clear image, who has a strong Believe in himself and who wants to live with a noble purpose, can one day fulfill his wealth. You learned from this book that to be rich, we have to think in a certain way and take action. You also learned that you can never become rich through competition.
Never forget to say thank you to people in your life and always share your happiness with others. Share happiness around you and help people as much as you can. The uppermost also fulfills his dreams which he reserves. So stick to your faith and purpose. Seeing the dream of getting rich is neither a bad thing nor is it impossible to fulfill this dream. As long as you try to bring improvement in your and others' lives, all your dreams will be fulfilled.

Summaries World: About This Book: The epidemic is the truth of nature that cannot be avoided. The World Health Organization says that we hav...

Summaries World:

About This Book:

The epidemic is the truth of nature that cannot be avoided. The World Health Organization says that we have to face it once every 27 years. In this book, you will learn about the Spanish flu pandemic spread in 1918 and which virus caused it. Humans have faced such deadly epidemics many times before. We can also do this. This book will teach you how to do it.

Who should read this summary?

• Whoever wants to know about the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic
• Whoever is scared of the Kovid-19 epidemic

About author:

John M. Barry is an award-winning professor, historian, and author. His books "Rising Tide" and "The Great Influenza" are included in the New YorkTimes bestseller list. Barry has been awarded several awards for his fine work. He has written for Time magazine, Wall Street Journal and many publications.

The Great Influenza - Book Summary - John M. Barry

Now We Start Summary:


The Spanish flu of 1918 has been the most dangerous epidemic in history. In this book, you will know how it started, how it spread and how it ended. In this, you will also learn about the nature of a virus. Where the virus comes from and how humans and animals get caught in it, this book will answer all those questions. This book will teach us some important things about how humans can save themselves by fighting against a deadly epidemic.

Haskell County:

Experts say that the 1918 Spanish flu began in Haskell, Kansas, which is in the United States. Agriculture was the source of income for the people of Haskell. For the people there, their farms, pets and crops were their treasure. Almost every family lovingly cared for their chickens and other pets. There used to be a Dr. in Haskell County. His name was Dr Loring Miner.
From January to February 1918, Dr Loring had an Extra Ordinary Experience. A patient came to him whose symptoms looked like he had the common flu. He had a fast fever, he was coughing continuously and there was a lot of pain in his head and body. But then, strange cases started coming from Copeland, Santa Feke farms.
Dr Loring was convinced that the disease was influenza but he had not seen such serious cases before. Influenza grows rapidly in the body. Dr Loring's 12 patients died due to this. The most surprising thing was that all those patients were quite strong and healthy but still, they could not fight this disease.
Dr Loring committed his life to learn more about this disease. He collected samples of urine, blood and cough of patients, read all his medical books and journals. He even called some of his colleagues for help. He also reported to the US Public Health Service but everyone ignored Dr Loring's talk. Loring people were nervous to see a constantly increasing line of patients. Every day they would just keep looking after them. Don't know how many nights Dr Loring spent awake.
After two months of battling this disease, when the month of March started, this disease suddenly disappeared. The children started going back to school and people started working on their own. Life was normal again, but Dr Loring was immersed in deep anxiety.
Their concern was justified. Influenza had never taken such a serious form. In such a short time, so many people were never infected together. Dr Loring also tried to caution the public health officers, but no one took his words seriously. Meanwhile, the virus was slowly and becoming stronger. It could have ended in Haskell County because the place was a bit isolated and the population there was less. Influenza virus could be destroyed by infecting everyone there, because if all were caught, then there would not be a healthy person left there. But at that time World War I had created panic in the world.
Dean Nielsen Jean was a young soldier in Haskell County. He too became a victim of this disease. Within a week of having a patient infection, the virus can spread outside. Dean was on leave when he got the flu. But after a week he returned to Camp Funston on duty.
John Bottom was also a Soldier of Copeland, Haskell County. He was also hit by pneumonia. In February, Dean also reported for duty at Camp Funston. Camp Funston was on the banks of the Kansas River where 56,000 soldiers were training. On March 4, a young man working as a cook at Camp Funston became ill due to influenza. The number rose to 1,100 in just three weeks. had gone. All the soldiers had to get admitted to the hospital. 237 of them had pneumonia and 38 soldiers had died.

The Swarm:

Evidence was evident that the disease that was spreading in Funston came from Haskell. After coming from Haskell, there was some kind of change in this virus, due to which the situation in Funston had become so bad. When the virus's own If there is a change or shift in genes, it is called a mutation.
However, soldiers from Funston started being sent to other camps in the US and Europe. Viruses have only one purpose, which is to increase in number and spread. But this does not mean that the virus is a simple and very old organism. Like humans and animals, there is also development and progress over time. Viruses are very developed organisms. Now let's talk about the influenza virus.
The influenza virus did not come from humans. It came from original birds. Influenza viruses are present in many strain birds. Influenza attacks the respiratory system of humans. But in birds, he attacks the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, there is a large amount of virus in the faeces of birds. When they fly, their faeces fall into the lake, river and all types of water sources.
The avian virus cannot infect humans from one person to another. It changes or changes first, i.e. it mutates. Sometimes it infects the pigs and then transfers to humans with piglets. Whenever there is a change in a new strain of influenza and it starts infecting humans, it gives rise to an epidemic. The beginning of this epidemic cannot be avoided, it is a part of nature.
Let us now understand the structure of a virus. The virus is like a ball with spikes around it. The virus is made up largely of the membrane. There is RNA inside it, which contains eight genes that tells what the virus is after all. The size of a virus is 1 / 10,000 part of a millimetre.
The spikes around the virus are actually proteins. They are called Hemagglutinin. They have only one task and that is to attack.
Now let's assume that the virus goes inside the respiratory system of a human being. It attacks the cells of the body. There are sialic acid receptors around the cells that Hemagglutinin starts to touch. The structure of hemagglutinin and sialic acid is such that they join together like pieces of a puzzle. As the virus attaches to the cell membrane, hemagglutinin is added to sialic acid.
After this, a hole is formed in the membrane of the cell by which the virus enters the cell. Now the virus covers itself with a bubble. By doing this, it becomes difficult to detect the virus. The virus transforms itself inside the bubble. As they gather while removing socks from the feet, the virus also starts to fold. Scientists call this process uncoating.
Now the virus leaves itself open inside the cell. His bubble and membrane break down and start melting. Because of this, the genes of the virus go inside the nucleus of the cells. These genes replace the cells of cells and replace them. Just like someone forcibly takes the steering wheel of your car.
Now there is complete control of the virus inside the nucleus and he orders the cell to make thousands of virus proteins. They bind to form proteins and viruses.
This process usually takes ten hours. This is the time frame when the virus connects to the cell and starts generating new viruses. Now the cell in which it was started is called the host cell and it explodes. One million viruses start coming out and attacking new cells.

It Begins:

On March 4, the first case of influenza was reported at Camp Funston. On 18 March, new cases were also learned from Camp Greenleaf and Camp Forest in Georgia. In all, influenza epidemics had spread to 24 large army campuses in the US. All the soldiers had become so sick and weak that they could not take training and neither had the strength to fight.
It started in Europe in Brest, France. This was around 10 April when American soldiers reached there. After this camp, the disease spread to many other campuses.
Due to this many people got sick but till now it had not taken a serious form. People were slowly recovering.
By the end of April, influenza had also taken the British Army under its arrest. After some time it reached Paris and Italy. After such a spread, the epidemic was given the name of Spanish flu.
Governments in France, Germany and the United Kingdom prevented the real report from going out. Only the positive report was being shown to the public so that the morale of the soldiers did not break.
However, accurate and correct news was being shown in Spain. Only the Spanish newspapers reported the growing outbreak of influenza. This happened especially when Jan Alphonso XIII himself was infected.
This flu was not taking the name of stoppage and spread to the spreading Portugal and Greece. The whole of Germany was hit by it in June. In July, people from Norway and Denmark started falling ill. Until August, Sweden and Holland also could not remain untouched by this.
29 May, its first case came to light in Bombay. They were seven soldiers who worked in ships and docks. Other government workers also started getting sick. The disease started spreading through the railway route and reached Bombay to Calcutta, Madras, Rangoon and Karachi.
By that time, the virus had spread to Shanghai as well. One writer says that a wave of this virus was rising in China. By September, the virus had made its way to New Zealand and Australia. 30% of Sydney's population had become ill.
In 1918, the Spanish flu came as a wave (wave), which is normal for an epidemic. Its first wave arose in the spring. At that time, most of the cases were light-hearted and patients were also recovering. Very few people lost their lives. Some health officers said that the virus had ended, but their guess proved completely wrong.
It seemed as if the virus had gone underground for some time. But actually, mutation was happening in it and he was preparing to attack in a big way. Its second wave started in the Autumn season. By that time the virus had become very dangerous and by 1918 it had taken the form of a fatal disease.
Now the question comes, what is the reason for this trend? It is common that a pandemic starts lightly and starts to create havoc in the second wave. After all, how does this happen? Every time the virus goes from one host to another, it becomes even stronger. The virus starts working in creating new viruses, in growing, spreading and in a better way. It becomes more adept at attacking. This incident is called passage.
But the virus also has a limit to attack. It cannot always be strong. When the virus starts infecting in a very efficient way, there comes a time when no new host is found to attack it. At that point, the virus starts destroying itself. After this, the spread of the virus reduces and then it starts to die on its own.

The Pestilence:

The second wave of Spanish flu came in the 1918 Autumn season. Experts believed that the disease that was spreading all over the world was the only influenza. But this virus had become so powerful and such symptoms were coming out which were quite different from the flu. This was proved to be true in more serious cases. Many patients had a lot of pain in the whole body.
Clifford Adams of Philadelphia stated his discomfort saying that "I could not think of anything else. I don't care if I'll be alive or not. Right now my condition, I feel that I am dead. I feel alive because of my breath. ”
Bill Sarod of Washington said, "I don't know the time. Neither I can think in the normal way, nor I can react in the normal way. Every day I get some confusion.
Jose Brown of Illinois said, "My heart was beating so hard that I thought it might not come out of my body." I had a severe fever and felt very cold. My body used to vibrate a lot ”.
It was influenza but many doctors were surprised due to these symptoms. One of them was symptom cyanosis. In this condition, some parts of the body turn blue. A doctor said that cyanosis was a very surprising condition in which fingers, ears, nose, tongue all became dark blue ".
The second shocking symptom was epistaxis or epistaxis. These symptoms were seen in 15% of the patients on the US Army campus.
It was written in the report that when the head of the patient was lowered, blood started coming out of the nose and mouth. Six people were having blood vomiting. Because of this, a patient died due to a lack of blood.
The most shocking thing was that the Spanish flu did not have the same symptom. Even more frightening was that young and healthy people were dying due to this.
Normal flu and pneumonia mostly attack children and old people, but the worst effect of Spanish flu was on healthy people aged 21-30 years. Most of those people were dying who were young.
Due to his age, his immunity was strong, but he still could not fight this dangerous virus. Even the post mortem report did not reveal anything clearly. It was influenza but it had damaged every organ of the body of patients. Heart, brain, kidney, liver were all damaged in one way or the other. But the worst condition was lungs.
A scientist said that viral infection was not a normal thing to have such a bad effect on the lungs. People infected with Spanish flu had wounds in the lungs. It seemed as if they had smelled very poisonous gas. At the time of post mortem, when the lungs are taken out, its air escapes like a balloon. But when the lungs of those patients were removed, they were inflated as if they were full of air. But what came out on the test shook everyone. They were filled with waste of badly damaged cells, not by air. White blood cells, enzymes were scattered all over the place. Blood was spread in the lungs.
This fight between the influenza virus and the immune system occurred in the lungs. Its view was not less than a battleground and nothing was left in that devastation.
Tolling of the bell
This epidemic was spreading so fast that all shops, schools and offices were closed. Roads became completely deserted. The national and local government did not give any information to the public about this disease. It was printed in the newspaper that there is no need to panic.
The government wanted to save the morale of the people, but instead, the fear sat in the minds of the people. People were not fully aware of anything which was adding to their fears. Newspapers were distorting and writing, and no political party had ever accepted the serious threat of influenza.
This virus had become like a predator looking for humans to hunt. Be it cities or villages or small towns, people were dying everywhere. There was no such corner of the world left by this virus.
Most deaths occurred in India. The first wave of the virus was going on in India in the spring season. But in September 1918, the virus wreaked havoc on Bombay again. At that time the bus was packed with corpses. Whenever the train left from somewhere, there were people awake in it, but when they reached the station, they were just full of corpses.
13,190 patients were admitted to a hospital in Delhi. Out of the 7,044 people who lost their lives. The most devastation took place in Punjab. A doctor told that the hospital was so packed that there was no place even to remove the dead body. People were dying on the streets. Woods started falling short to burn the corpses. Now the corpses started being dumped in the river. Due to this, rivers also started filling with corpses. It was estimated that about 20 million people had lost their lives.


Victor was the head of the Disease Department in the Vaughn Army. He said that if the virus continues to spread at this speed, within a few weeks the nomination of human beings will be erased from this world. This virus had now become a threat to human life.
But the truth is that some viruses require humans to stay alive. Measles is one of its templates. When a person is infected with measles once, he becomes immune to it forever, that is, that virus will no longer have any effect on that person's body. Therefore, if no human is found to infect the virus of measles, then it will die on its own.
Experts say that measles requires at least half a million populations that have not been vaccinated and that remain in close contact with the virus so that the virus can stay alive.
But influenza virus is very different from this. Their house is the body of birds. Therefore, they do not need humans to stay alive. Even if not a single person is left alive, the influenza virus will remain alive.
Science and technology made great progress in the 19th century. But man was still helpless in front of this deadly disease. The Spanish flu was not eradicated by any medicine or vaccine, but it ended on its own due to the natural process. Nature failed to do science.
In the last chapter, we talked about the passage and knew that when the virus infects a new host, it becomes more powerful than before. The onset of an epidemic begins with a mild light disease called First Wave and later it takes a frightening form called Second Wave. When this epidemic is in its most dangerous phase, then two natural processes begin. The first is the immunity of our body. When a virus infects a large population, then the people of that group start developing immunity against it. People who have been infected have a very low chance of getting reinfected with the same virus.
In a town or city, the time frame from the first case to the last case is from 6-8 weeks. Because there were more people on the army campus, there was a lot of crowds and there it was 3-4 weeks. Until the virus infects everyone and after doing so, when it does not find a new host, then it dies.
For example, the virus killed 4,597 people in Philadelphia between October 9-16, but very few people fell ill after that and so all public places were reopened on October 26. When the war ended in November11, it felt Like the virus was completely destroyed. Not a new case had come and then it started to end slowly.
The second natural process is that which is inside the virus. This virus of 1918 had become very dangerous and fatal. There was a rapid mutation in it. It is said that when a serious incident occurs, the incident that follows it is not so serious. So during the 1918 Autumn season, this epidemic had taken a very dangerous turn. So now the mutation of the virus started decreasing here and slowly it started to end.
For Example, 20% of the jawans had pneumonia in the 5 large army campuses previously attacked by the influenza virus, of which 37% died. The maximum death was at Camp Sherman, Ohio, where 35% of the soldiers had pneumonia and 61% of them succumbed.
Three weeks later, the last 5 camps were attacked by the virus, in which only 7.1% of the soldiers had pneumonia and 17.8% of them died. We can also understand this in such a way that most of the people who were infected inside a camp in the first 10 to 10 days had lost their lives compared to those who had the infection later.
The situation was the same in cities. Philadelphia, Boston, New York were the cities where the virus first spread. In the first two weeks, the situation in all these places was very bad. Thousands of people lost their lives. But later the death rate started coming down. It is the general rule that where the epidemic spreads later, there is less death because the virus reaches its extreme point where its mutation rate is reduced.
By the end of November 1918, the virus had engulfed the entire world. At that time the world's population was 1.8 billion. Several studies have shown that 5% of the world's population had died from the 1918 spring to 1919 summer season.


Rockefeller Institute, John Hopkins University and many other institutions in the world tried to find a cure for In Spanish Flu but all of them failed. This happened because he had made a mistake in understanding the most important thing and that was about the organism that caused the disease. Most doctors agreed that the Spanish flub. Influenza or Bacillus is caused by influenza. But they were relevant.
So what lessons can we learn from this epidemic? The first is that in such situations the government plays a very important role. National and local leaders should take steps to make people aware and to get the right information to the people.
People should know about this disease. They should know what causes it and how it can be avoided. The government should implement public health rules that can prevent the virus from spreading.
Social distancing was not followed in the Army Campus in 1918. It was very crowded and cleanliness was not so much. The soldiers were taken from one place to another. Because of all this, the influenza virus was spreading so fast.
Second, people also play a very important role in this. We should follow the guidelines of the health department and the government. Lockdown, social distancing, wearing masks and gloves, washing hands frequently is the biggest defence against this epidemic. If the contact between the people is controlled and hygiene is taken care of, then this virus can be defeated to some extent. When a new host is not found to infect the virus, it will automatically die.
We should not let fear dominate us. We can fight the virus with the help of science and education. That is the truth of our nature that cannot be avoided. They will happen from time to time. But we definitely have the power to protect our country and our loved ones.

Summaries World  About This Book: If seen, we do not appreciate our brain . We do not know how complex it is and how many different parts of...

Summaries World 

About This Book:

If seen, we do not appreciate our brain. We do not know how complex it is and how many different parts of our brain are involved in doing every work. In this book, you will know the rules of the brain, which will help you to achieve the full potential of your brain. You will learn how to increase your memory and problem solving ability. You will learn how to remain strong and alert with increasing age.

Who should read this summary?

• Students, young professionals and old people
• Whoever wants to know about the amazing power of the brain

About author:

Dr. John Medina is a molecular biologist, professor and author. He is founding director of Talaris Research Institute, who has focused attention on children's cognitive development. Medina has been a great teacher who has been awarded many awards. He is also the director of the Brain Center at Seattle Pacific University. He has written more than 10 books about Psychology.

BRAIN RULES: 12 Principle For Surviving & Thriving At Work, Home, And School - Book Summary - John Medina

Now we Start Summary:


Have you ever thought how powerful your brain is? It can understand words and numbers. It helps you to go from one place to another even when you are scared or nervous. Your brain is not only powerful but also very fast.
Have you ever thought how do you understand something when you read it? Or how fast do you recognize your friend or a known face even in a crowd? This amazing is of your brain and millions of neurons inside it. It is so surprising that in a small space you can store countless information.
So what can we do to improve our brain? In this book you will learn how the brain works and how you can always maintain it in good condition.

Our brain is a very interesting and surprising machine. Through this book, you will know a lot about it because believe your brain knows you very well.


Rule # 1: Exercise Boosts Brain Power

Our ancestors were, in a way, you can call them Banjara because they used to roam from one place to another. They were forced to go to different places because it was not possible to stay in one place for a long time. They had to face many difficulties such as lack of food or wood, wild animals attacked or the weather was always changing. Moving forward in the face of such a condition helped the brain to develop faster.
But if we talk about today, then our lifestyle and living habits are very different as compared to our ancestors. Today we travel for many hours without moving from our seat. Many types of machines have made our work easier. Yes, how will our old age have a profound effect on our lifestyle.
If you live a dull life, that is, you are inactive and you have spent most of your life lying on the sofa, then there is no doubt that you will start getting older. But if you have adopted an active lifestyle then you will remain agile and agile even after 75 years.
There are many benefits to exercising. It reduces the risk of diseases like heart attack and stroke. It keeps you physically and mentally in perfect shape. Many studies have proved that people who take an active lifestyle are far ahead of people with memory, logic, ability to solve problems and the power to understand things.
If you are also lazy and lethargic then do not be depressed because the research people noticed that after following the exercise program, there was a lot of improvement in the mental ability of inactive people. In four months, he had shown a lot of progress.
Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases occurring in old age. It maintains your mood well because physical exercise releases serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in your nervous system.
Jack Lalen is a perfect example of how exercise boosts the power of the brain. At the age of 70, he surprised everyone by pulling a 70 boat from Long Beach Harbor, California, to the queens Way Bridge, which had a single man aboard. 70 boats were tied behind Jack and he covered 1.5 miles. In addition to the strong body, at that age too, Jack was mentally fit. His mind and body was like a young man of 20 years.
Now let's take Jim and Frank as exams who adopted an active and interactive lifestyle. Jim used to live in old age home. He did not travel much, just sat in front of the TV. He was very sad and often started crying for no reason.
On the other hand, Frank Physically and Mentally were active. He was always busy with some work. Actually Frank was an architect who completed the work of building a museum at the age of 90. Apart from being physically healthy, he was also happy with his life.

What do you think was the reason for this difference? When you keep yourself active, you are filled with positive thoughts and energy. But where you start to sit empty, then in your mind, devilish thoughts start coming home and fill you with negative thoughts which causes your grief and discomfort as happened with Jim.
There are many people who are dull and interactive like gym but there is still hope for them. Even just 20 minutes of exercise every day has the power to bring positive changes in your health and mood.


Rule # 2: The Human Brain Evolved, Too

Our ancestors used not only their bodies but also their brains a lot to escape the harsh environment. He used symbolic reasoning. Symbolic reasoning is the art that makes us different from animals. This is the ability to see things that do not really exist. Imagine that you draw a straight and long line on your hand. Because we have symbolic reasoning, we understand that it means either alphabet "I" or number 1.
Symbolic reasoning has helped our ancestors in interacting with each other and cautioning us if there is any further danger. Thankfully, over time many changes and developments have taken place in human beings and some such symbols have become such that anyone can understand in any corner of the world like red signal means stop, thumps up means OK and so on.
We also use symbolic reasoning in many fields such as language, art, poetry. We have molded our culture into this unique ability. Think of our sacred texts, mythology and designs. Humans created religion and corporation with the help of symbolic reasoning. Animals cannot do all this.
Natural selection removed our weak ancestors and the genes of stronger people passed on to the next generation. Nevertheless, history ignored it. When our ancestors started life on earth with a small population in East Africa, how did the population reach 7 billion today?
So the answer is change. Instead of fighting it, we learned to adapt to change and adopt it. Richard Potts, director of Human Origins at Smithsonian Museum, calls this theory Variability Selection Theory. This theory suggests that there are 2 powerful characteristics in our brain.
First, we become aware when we make mistakes and second our brain gives us permission to learn from them. This ability taught our ancestors to move forward without facing any help from the rapidly changing condition. There was no one to tell or teach them. He faced everything himself and kept moving forward.
Another thing that makes us different from animals is bipedalism. This is the ability that gives us the ability to walk on two legs and use the hands for other work. But the biggest factor that separates humans from others is the prefrontal cortex of our brain.
Prefrontal cortex is particularly responsible for solving the problem, focusing attention, and controlling the natural sense or intuition. Let's understand it with a story.
This is the story of 25-year-old Phineas gauge. He was the head of the railroad construction team. Gage's family and his companions remember him as a funny, smart and hardworking boy. One day, during work, Gauge succumbed to a terrible accident. He was preparing for the blast to remove the rocks. But the blast happened ahead of time.
A 3 foot long steel rod penetrated directly into the center of the gauge brain. This completely damaged her prefrontal cortex. It was no less than a miracle that Gage's life was saved. But this incident changed his life. Laughing smiling gauge was now irritable, angry and quarrelsome. A few years later he died of epileptic seizures.


Rule # 3: We considered Pay Attention to Boring Things

To learn things, we need to give attention. The more you focus on something, the more you will be able to remember it. Now in every classroom and office, a question is definitely asked, how to maintain one's attention?
A lot of things distract our attention. Suppose you are reading something and only then your dog starts playing with you or many cars pass by, etc. Wherever our attention is, memory makes its impact there.
Jared Diamond, author of the book "Guns, Germs, and Steel", shared his trip in the New Guinea wilderness and the time he spent with the indigenous New Guinea people living there. The people there were adept at noticing changes in the environment, chasing a trail and finding ways to return home.
Jared, who lived in the city, could do nothing of these. This is an example of how we pay attention to the things that are associated with our culture and the culture in which we grew up. Just imagine that a New Guinea child who was born and raised in New York, do you think he would ever know the techniques of being alive that his ancestors knew?
Interest also has a connection with attention. Marketing professionals take advantage of this principal. In his advertisement, he always brings something new, unique and different concepts. Now take the print ad of Sauza tequila, instead of a party of 20's people, they had painted a picture of a bearded old man who was dressed in filthy crocodiles and had a big mischievous laugh on his face.
The old man had only one tooth in his mouth. It was written on it "There is just a hole in the teeth of this man". It was written below that "Life is hard but you should not have tequila". This ad attracted the attention of the people because its picture was so unique and different and there was humor in the written line.
Information or awareness also affects attention. Let's understand from an exam. In the book "The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat" by well-known neurologist and author Dr. Oliver Sacks, Dr. Oliver had a patient who had a dangerous stroke. The back of his brain was badly damaged.
The effect of this was that she could not feel anything in the left part of her body and could not see anything with the left eye. She did not know what is happening in her left side, so she could not pay attention to it.
Whenever she used make-up after this accident, she would do only on the right side of the face, when she ate, she would eat the right side of her plate. She often complained to the nurse why she was never given anything sweet to eat. The nurse used to tell them that if she looks in her left side, then she will definitely see sweets. Sweets were always kept there, they simply did not know about it.

Short-term memory:

Rule # 4: Repeat to Remember

Your memory helps you stay alive. If your brain does not remember what food you are allergic to, then you will get sick after eating the same thing again and again. Experiences shape your brain and help you live longer. But how does our memory actually work?
German researcher Hermann Ebbinghaus tried to answer this question by experimenting with himself. He coined 2,300 three alphabet absurd words like ZUG, REN, TAZ and spent his entire life memorizing them. Through this experiment, Ebbinghaus realized that memory has a different life span. Some memories are remembered only for a few moments while some are remembered for a lifetime. Ebbinghaus said that in order to remember a memory for a long time, he had to repeat the words in between. The more times you repeat that Emory, the longer it stays. Due to the work of Ebbinghaus, further study was done on this subject.
You can apply this principal to study. If you need to remember a lot, then you can do this at all if you repeat it everyday. But if you try to remember a lot of information in a short time just before the exam, then you will fail. Ebbinghaus says that it is better to remember a little information than to gap, remembering small portions by taking more effective breaks than trying to remember everything at once.
What is your social security number? Do you know how to ride a bike? When you try to remember your social security number, the last time you saw your card or the last time you wrote your number, you try to see that image.
But when you ride your bike again after many years, then you do not do this. You don't miss every step like grabbing the handle, sitting on the seat and stepping on the pedal. You do not have to think or remember much in doing all this.
We are talking about two types of memory on the basis of awareness or not. Declarative memory are those you can tell about, like "I wore a black shirt" or "We live on planet earth". This type of memory requires awareness.

Non-declarative memory, on the other hand, is what you automatically do, such as tying a shoe rope, brushing your teeth, or riding a bike. This is because motor skills are not part of our conscious awareness.
Every morning you do all the work of your routine without any extra effort. You don't have to miss anything to brush teeth or to tie shoes. Even if you have not rode a bike or played guitar for many years, your muscles will still remember how to do that work.
H.M was nine years old when he fell from a bicycle. He suffered a deep injury on his head, after which he started having frequent seizures. His condition was getting worse as he got older. Then there was a time when once a week H.M. He started falling unconscious. By reaching the age of 30, he was not able to do any work. Even he was not safe in his house. Seeing his condition, his family took him to a well-known neurosurgeon, William Scoville.
Scoville stated that the temporal lobe in H.M.'s brain was the problem. It is a part of the brain above both our ears. Scoville removed the left and right temporal lobe of his brain. This leads to H.M. The seizures have reduced but he has lost the ability to convert short term memory to long term memory. After the surgery, H.M. could not remember anything for long.
As time passed, there was a time when H.M. Could not even recognize myself in the mirror. His face had grown old. This was not the same as before the surgery. H.M. He did not know how old he was. He could not remember any new name, face, song or words. His memory was so low that even after meeting someone, if he turned away, he would forget that person.
H.M. Remained a subject of research for years. They would all behave in a cheerful and sociable manner with the scientist. He never tired due to any test because every experience was new to him. H.M. at the age of 82 because of respiratory problems. Has died

Long-term memory:

Rule # 5: Remember to Repeat

As the name suggests, the memory of the short term is not so much for the short term. According to scientist Alan Baddeley, it has a complex process of three factors. The first is auditory, the second is visual and the third is executive. Short term is more accurate working memory for term memory.
The auditory factor is given for the words we hear. The visual factor is responsible for the image that we see and picture it in our brain. The central executive keeps track of everything in the short term memory. Let's understand it with a story.
Miguel Najdorf was a famous chase player. When he was in Argentina for a competition, Germany attacked Poland. Miguel's family was taken captive and taken to a concentration camp. With the hope that he would be able to meet his family again, Miguel played 45 games of the Chase in 11 hours. He used it as a publicity stunt so that a member of his family could find out about him after hearing about him.
Playing Chase non-stop for 11 hours was a surprise in itself, but there was another interesting thing in it that Miguel was playing all these games blindfolded. Note that at the beginning of the game, there is a fixed place for every piece on the board of the chase. Miguel first played the game using the audio factor.
When the player in front would have made his move, Miguel would have asked him which piece he had increased and according to that he would have done his trick. After that, he used the visual factor to create an image in his brain that how every piece moves on the chase board. Therefore, he could easily win the game even with his eyes closed. Finally, Miguel used the central executive factor to differentiate one game from the other, meaning that when a game was over, he would re-set his mental image to the initial setting of the game.
As Ebbinghaus said, if you do not repeat your information in between and do not connect it with other important information, you will soon forget about it. This process is called consolidation. In this way we convert our short term memory to long term memory.
In simple words, consolidation means repeating and adding. If you really want to remember something, then you have to repeat it again and again. Its mantra is: Repeat and connect.
You will be surprised to know that your childhood memories are not as accurate as you think. As time passes, the details of any event in your memory begin to fade and hence the brain starts adding new things to that event.
Your brain takes in every information you experience in the world. Therefore, it uses the technique of connecting your old memories with new memories. This makes the brain easy to understand the meaning of everything.
For example, assume that at the age of 8, you spent a very good time with your parents at the beach. By the age of 10, you will be able to remember the details of that day very accurately. You may have written about that day in your diary. But if you will read that diary after thirty years, then the memory of that day will not be the same as it was while writing the diary. This happens because your new experiences affect your happy memory, due to which its details start to disappear. The things that we do not remember again and again, the brain starts deleting those things automatically.


Rule # 6: Sleep Well, Think Well

Often, due to lack of sleep, due to the changes you feel, you start overreacting and you are not wrong in this. Studies have repeatedly proved that lack of sleep causes severe damage to your body. We cannot work continuously without stopping or without sleep because our body has an automatic system of waking and sleeping.
Waking and sleeping have been described as a fight going on inside our body. This fight is between Process C and Process S. Process C is made of hormones and chemicals that work to keep you awake. On the other hand, Process S is made of hormones and chemicals whose job is to make you sleep.
In this fight, the process which dominates more is more likely to be lost, but why? This is because the longer you stay awake, the more you will start sleeping because your body is very tired.
Even taking a nap in the afternoon is considered healthy by the researchers. Taking a nap does not mean that you are lazy or sleeping too much. Our body just needs a chance to rest for some time, even if it is just a few minutes.
A study conducted by NASA showed that a pilot's performance had increased by 34% after taking a 26-minute nap. Another study showed that the mental processing of students who took a 45-minute nap had increased significantly. Let's understand it with a story.
In 1965, 17-year-old Randy Garner decided that he would be constantly awake for 11 days for his science project. He not only showed this amazing work by doing the truth, but he also made a record that year as the longest sleepless person.
But after this, during his experiment Randy became very tired, cuddled and behaved like forgetful. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease such as confusion, insanity and mental confusion started appearing in it. Randy's body was acting like a broken machine. On the last day of his experiment, his fingers began to tremble and he was unable to speak properly.
Getting complete sleep is not only necessary for children. This is a natural process of our body to recharge itself. Getting full sleep is very important for a person of all ages.
When you need to study for the exam or work on an important project, then you must take the rest in between. Taking a nap does not mean being lazy, rather it makes you more productive.


So you learned about the 6 rules of the brain in this book that can change your life.

Brain rule # 1 says that exercise helps you to keep not only physical but also mentally fit. It leads you to old age in a very beautiful way.

Brain rule # 2 told you that your brain has been developing over time. There have been many changes in it. It has helped keep you alive by adapting yourself to the changing environment.

Brain Rule # 3 talked about the effect of memory, interest and awareness in your attention. We pay more attention to what is important for our culture, which is extraordinarily and understood by our understanding.

Brain Rule # 4 explained to you that it is more effective to memorize a little bit of information than to memorize a lot of information at once. You need to take a break in the middle and repeat that information so that you can remember it.

Brain Rule # 5 taught you about consolidation. Repeating and connecting converts short term memory into long term memory.

Brain Rule # 6 reminded you how important it is to sleep. It helps you become smarter and healthier than ever.
Our brain is like a muscle. It needs exercise but together it also needs rest. So hopefully these rules will help you in increasing the capacity of your mind.

Our brain is an excellent system to process information and if seen, it is the most unique and complex machine that ever works, which also does wonders and sometimes surprises us. So take good care of it and try to unlock its unlimited potential because we are sure that its power will surprise you.